1. Preparation of nanoparticles with multifunctional groups (GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00017; 2. subprogramme “BIONANO”)

A) Preparation of nanoparticles with multifunctional groups for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes applying PAMAM dendrimer of 5th generation as a carrier molecule

The dendrimer molecule has more than 100 reactive amine groups on its external surface, which excellently suitable to bind different molecules to them, as target compound bound covalently to the carrier compound: folic acid; contrast agent [Gd(DOTA)] or „painting” molecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate); drug molecules (taxol or methotrexate) (for detailed description see Research Topics) (see Fig.1).

Fig p1

Fig. 1 Some examples for preparation of dendrimer-based targeted nanodevices. Blue circles symbolize the molecular scaffold of 5th generation PAMAM dendrimer and all 110 surface groups are signed. -NH2 primer amino group; -Ac acetyl group; -OH glyceryl group; FiTC fluoresceine isothiocyanate; FA folic acid; TXL drug taxol; -MTXe drug methotrexate.

B) Synthesis of enzyme nanoparticles with different polymer material

The main aim of this research is to increase the enzyme stability for its repeated usage as biocatalyst (Fig. 2). The enzyme as single enzyme is covered by a very thin polymeric layer, which significantly increases the lifetime of the enzyme (see Research Topics).

 Fig p2

Fig.2 Synthesis of enzyme nanoparticles in two steps 1. Surface modification 2. Polymerization.

C) Investigation of the operation conditions of membrane bioreactor, using enzyme nanoparticles as biocatalysts

Taking the advantage of membrane bioreactors, namely simultaneous realization of the chemical reaction and the product separation, different application possibilities will be investigated of this process. Enzymes are used as native one or covered by thin polymer layer and binding e.g. to magnetic nanoparticles. Different membrane configurations and operating conditions are applied to improve the membrane performance (Fig. 3).

 Fig p3

Fig. 3 Enzyme catalytic membrane bioreactor with enzyme containing nanoparticles (e.g. magnetic enzyme nanoparticles) immobilized in the support layer of the membrane.

2. Research and development of new galenic pharmaceutical products and formation of its manufacturing infrastructure (GINOP-2.2.1-15-2016-00023; “EGIS”)

So called „nanonized” pharmaceutical drug carrier systems are investigated (e.g. biocompatible and biodegradable polymer nanoparticles) with retarded drug release.

3. Enzymatic degradation of antibiotic and phenolic residual waste components at low concentration in surface waters and industrial wastewater using modified membrane bioreactor (TÉT_15_IN-1-2016-0094)

The residual antibiotic compounds in the surface and river water have negative effects on the ecological structures, especially on aquatic ecosystems and increase the numbers of antibiotic resistant pathogen microbes. Enzymes immobilized over membranes (enzymatic membrane reactors) are available to degrade antibiotics or phenolics even when these pollutants are presented in very low concentrations. Applications of membrane reactors in biochemical processes are intensively studied by our institute for decades. Two main configurations are available for membrane separation of micropollutants: (1) combined membrane process (separation and break down of pollutants). This configuration consists of two units: tank reactor and membrane; (2) enzyme immobilization into porous membranes and uses as enzyme membrane reactor (Fig. 4).

 Fig p4

Fig. 4 Scheme of the work of membrane module with enzyme catalytic membrane bioreactor. Enzymes are immobilized in the support layer of the membrane

4. Energy generation by pressure retarded osmosis using ionic liquids with switchable polarity (OTKA 116727)

The main aim of this project is to investigate how the specific energy can be improved to make this process more attractive from practical points of view. To it the mathematical description of this process in presence of foulant compounds is investigated. Relatively simple, closed expressions will be developed for getting model equations, which enable the user more precise estimation of the membrane performance.